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1177 B.C. : the year civilization collapsed
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Название: 1177 B.C. : the year civilization collapsed
Автор: Cline Eric H.
Издательство: Princeton University Pres
Жанр: История
Год издания: 2014
Страниц: 259
ISBN: 978-0-691-14089-6
Язык: Английский
Формат: PDF
Качество: Хорошее
Размер: 17 Мб

“In 1177 B.C., marauding groups known only as the “Sea Peoples” invaded Egypt. The pharaoh’s army and navy managed to defeat them, but the victory so weakened Egypt that it soon
slid into decline, as did most of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized world of the Bronze Age came to an abrupt and cataclysmic end. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the course of just a few decades. No more Minoans or Mycenaeans. No more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving economy and cultures of the late second illennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, suddenly ceased to exist, along with writing systems, technology, and monumental architecture. But the Sea Peoples alone could not have caused such widespread breakdown. How did it happen? In this major new account of the causes of this “First Dark Ages,” Eric Cline tells the gripping story of how the end was brought about by multiple interconnected failures, ranging from invasion and revolt to earthquakes, drought, and the cutting of international trade routes. Bringing to life the vibrant multicultural world of these great civilizations, he draws a sweeping panorama of the empires and globalized peoples of the Late Bronze Age and shows that it was their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic collapse and ushered in a dark age that lasted centuries. A compelling combination of narrative and the latest scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new light on the complex ties that gave rise to, and ultimately destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the Late Bronze Age—and that set the stage for the emergence of classical Greece”— Provided by publisher.

После столетий процветания цивилизованный мир бронзового века пришел к резкому и катастрофическому концу. Царства рухнули подобно домино всего за несколько десятилетий. Не стало более минойцев и микенцев, хеттов и вавилонян. Развитые цивилизации конца II тысячелетия до н.э., которые простирались от Греции до Египта и Месопотамии, внезапно прекратили свое существование. Наступили первые "темные века". Как это произошло? И кто был виновником этого масштабного всеохватывающего коллапса? В своей книге Эрик Клайн, отвечая на эти вопросы, рассказывает нам захватывающую историю о том, как коллапс цивилизаций был вызван многочисленными взаимосвязанными неудачами, начиная от вторжения "народов моря" и восстания до землетрясений, засухи и сокращения международных торговых путей. Воплотив в жизнь яркий мультикультурный мир этих великих царств, он рисует широкую панораму империй и глобализованных народов позднего бронзового века и показывает, что именно их взаимозависимость ускорила их драматический крах.

Оглавление
1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed (4 XYZ -7 669 null)
Contents (10 XYZ -7 669 null)
List of Illustrations (12 XYZ -7 669 null)
Series Editor’s Foreword (14 XYZ -7 669 null)
Preface (16 XYZ -7 669 null)
Acknowledgments (20 XYZ -7 669 null)
Prologue: The Collapse of Civilizations: 1177 BC (22 XYZ -7 669 null)
1 Act I. Of Arms and the Man: The Fifteenth Century BC (35 XYZ -7 669 null)
Harkening Back to the Hyksos (36 XYZ -7 669 null)
Flashback: Mesopotamia and the Minoans (39 XYZ -7 669 null)
Discovery and Overview of the Minoans (41 XYZ -7 669 null)
Back to Egypt (43 XYZ -7 474 null)
Hatshepsut and Thutmose III (47 XYZ -7 669 null)
Egypt and Canaan at the Battle of Megiddo, 1479 BC (49 XYZ -7 474 null)
Egypt and Mitanni (51 XYZ -7 474 null)
The Assuwa Rebellion in Anatolia (52 XYZ -7 474 null)
Excursus: Discovery and Overview of the Hittites (54 XYZ -7 669 null)
The Assuwa Rebellion and the Ahhiyawa Question (56 XYZ -7 474 null)
Discovery and Overview of the Mycenaeans (58 XYZ -7 474 null)
An Early Trojan War? (61 XYZ -7 474 null)
Concluding Remarks (62 XYZ -7 474 null)
2 Act II. An (Aegean) Affair to Remember: The Fourteenth Century BC (64 XYZ -7 669 null)
The Aegean List of Amenhotep III (65 XYZ -7 669 null)
The Amarna Archives (72 XYZ -7 474 null)
Greeting-Gifts and Family Relations (74 XYZ -7 474 null)
Gold, Fool’s Gold, and High-Level Trade (78 XYZ -7 474 null)
Rise of Alashiya and Assyria (81 XYZ -7 669 null)
Nefertiti and King Tut (83 XYZ -7 669 null)
Suppiluliuma and the Zannanza Affair (86 XYZ -7 474 null)
Hittites and Mycenaeans (91 XYZ -7 474 null)
3 Act III. Fighting for Gods and Country: The Thirteenth Century BC (94 XYZ -7 669 null)
The Uluburun Ship (95 XYZ -7 474 null)
Sinaranu of Ugarit (100 XYZ -7 474 null)
The Battle of Qadesh and Its Aftermath (101 XYZ -7 474 null)
The Trojan War (104 XYZ -7 474 null)
Foreign Contacts and the Greek Mainland in the Thirteenth Century BC (108 XYZ -7 669 null)
The Exodus and the Israelite Conquest (110 XYZ -7 474 null)
Hittites, Assyrians, Amurru, and Ahhiyawa (117 XYZ -7 669 null)
The Hittite Invasion of Cyprus (120 XYZ -7 474 null)
The Point Iria and Cape Gelidonya Shipwrecks (121 XYZ -7 474 null)
4 Act IV. The End of an Era: The Twelfth Century BC (123 XYZ -7 669 null)
The Discovery of Ugarit and Minet el-Beida (123 XYZ -7 474 null)
Economic and Commercial Connections of Ugarit and Its Merchants (125 XYZ -7 669 null)
Destructions in North Syria (129 XYZ -7 474 null)
Destructions in Southern Syria/Canaan (135 XYZ -7 474 null)
Megiddo (136 XYZ -7 669 null)
Lachish (139 XYZ -7 474 null)
The Philistine Pentapolis (143 XYZ -7 669 null)
Destructions in Mesopotamia (144 XYZ -7 669 null)
Destructions in Anatolia (145 XYZ -7 474 null)
Hattusa (146 XYZ -7 669 null)
Troy (148 XYZ -7 669 null)
Destructions on the Greek Mainland (149 XYZ -7 669 null)
Pylos (150 XYZ -7 669 null)
Mycenae (151 XYZ -7 669 null)
Tiryns (152 XYZ -7 474 null)
Destructions in Cyprus (153 XYZ -7 474 null)
Fighting in Egypt and the Harem Conspiracy (157 XYZ -7 669 null)
Summation (158 XYZ -7 474 null)
5 A “Perfect Storm” of Calamities? (160 XYZ -7 669 null)
Earthquakes (161 XYZ -7 474 null)
Climate Change, Drought, and Famine (163 XYZ -7 474 null)
Internal Rebellion (168 XYZ -7 474 null)
(Possible) Invaders and the Collapse of International Trade (169 XYZ -7 474 null)
Decentralization and the Rise of the Private Merchant (173 XYZ -7 474 null)
Was It the Sea Peoples and Where Did They Go? (175 XYZ -7 474 null)
Arguments for a Systems Collapse (181 XYZ -7 474 null)
A Review of Possibilities and Complexity Theory (185 XYZ -7 669 null)
Epilogue: The Aftermath (192 XYZ -7 669 null)
What If? (197 XYZ -7 669 null)
Dramatis Personae (198 XYZ -7 669 null)
Notes (202 XYZ -7 669 null)
Preface (202 XYZ -7 669 null)
Prologue (202 XYZ -7 474 null)
Chapter One (204 XYZ -7 474 null)
Chapter Two (206 XYZ -7 474 null)
Chapter Three (209 XYZ -7 474 null)
Chapter Four (211 XYZ -7 474 null)
Chapter Five (217 XYZ -7 474 null)
Epilogue (221 XYZ -7 474 null)
Bibliography (222 XYZ -7 669 null)
Index (250 XYZ -7 669 null)








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